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ILLUMINATI

 

The symbol of the Illuminati society

Adam Weishaupt

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Illuminati (an inarticulate plural form of the Latin noun illuminatus, "enlightened") is a name (or title), which refers to several groups and movements, both historical and modern, both real and fictional.

 

The Order of the Illuminati was a secret society founded on May 1, 1776, in Ingolstadt (Northern Bavaria), by Adam Weishaup [1], who was the first professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt [2]. The movement consisted of freethinkers, liberals, republicans (hence anti-royalty) and pro-feminists, recruited from German Masonic lodges, and sought to promote perfectionism through mystery schools. In 1785, the order was infiltrated, divided and suppressed first by the Bavarian government, for an alleged conspiracy and then throughout the German state (Reich). The accusation was that the purpose of the order is to overthrow all monarchies and state religions in Europe.

History

The movement was founded on May 1, 1776, in Ingolstadt, by Adam Weishaupt (d. 1830) [1], educated in Jesuit-run schools and who was the first secular professor of canon law at the University of Ingolstadt. Writers at the time, like Seth Payson, believed that the movement was a conspiracy to infiltrate and overthrow the governments of European states. Some writers, such as Augustin Barruel and John Robison, even claimed that the Illuminati were behind the French Revolution, a statement that Jean-Joseph Mounier licensed in 1802 his book On the Influence of Philosophers, Freemasons, and the Illuminati on the French Revolution. [4]

The group of partisans received the name "Illuminati", although they called themselves "Perfectibles". The group was also called the Order of the Illuminati and the Bavarian Illuminations, and the movement itself was related to the Enlightenment (from the Enlightenment). In 1777, Karl Theodor became the leader of Bavaria. He was a supporter of enlightened despotism, and in 1784 his government condemned all secret societies, including the Illuminati.

During the period when the Illuminati could act legally, many influential intellectuals and progressive politicians counted as members, including Ferdinand de Braunschweig and diplomat Xavier von Zwack, who was number two in operation and was found with much of the group's documentation when his house was searched [5]. The members of the Illuminati organization promised obedience to their superiors, and they were divided into three main classes, each with different degrees. The order had branches in several countries on the European continent; it is said to have had about 2,000 members in ten years [2]. The organization was attractive to writers such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johann Gottfried Herder, Karl Marx (through the League of the Right group) [6] and even to the Dukes of Gotha and Weimar. Weishaupt shaped his group to expand into Freemasonry, and many Illuminati affiliates brought in members from existing Masonic lodges. The misunderstanding inside and the panic over the succession preceded his fall, which was achieved by the Secular Decree made by the Bavarian government in 1785 [2].

Modern Illuminati

Writers such as Mark Dice [7], David Icke, Ryan Burke, Jüri Lina and Morgan Gricar have argued that the Bavarian Enlightenment has survived, possibly to this day. Many of these theories suggest that world events are controlled and manipulated by a secret society called the Illuminati [8] [9] [10]. Conspiracy theorists have claimed that many notable people were or are members of the Illuminati [11], including Winston Churchill, the Bush family [12]. Barack Obama, [13] the Rothschild family, [14] [15] David Rockefeller and Zbigniew Brzezinski [16].

In addition to the secret and dark organization, various fraternal groups claim to be the "successors" of the Bavarian Enlightenment and have openly used the name "Illuminati" in establishing their own rites. Some groups that call themselves in some variation the "Order of the Illuminati" [17] [18] [19] [20] use the name directly on behalf of their organization, while others, like the Ordo Templi Orientis, use the name for a degree within the organization. their.

In popular culture

The Illuminati are a hot topic in popular culture. References to the organization appear in many fiction books in several literary genres, appearing in movies, [21] in television productions [22], in video games [23], in comic book series [24], and even in cartoon.

 

Note

1. ^ a b Illuminati din Europa de Vernon L. Stauffer, prezentat în situl Marii Loji a Columbiei britanice și Yukonului.

2. ^ a b c Illuminati din Bavaria, o introducere editat de Trevor W. McKeown

3. ^ Payson, Seth; Dovezile Illuminati, The Invisible College Press, LLC, 2003 (prima ediție Charlestown: Etheridge, 1802) ISBN 1-931468-14-1

4. ^ Jean-Joseph Mounier, Despre influența atribuită filozofilor, francmasonilor și Illuminati asupra revoluției franceze, Scholars' Facsimiles & Reprints, New York, 1974 (retipărirea primei ediții din 1801). ISBN 0-8201-1135-X.

5. ^ Introvigne, Massimo. „Illuminati și Îngeri și demoni. Întrebări și răspunsuri – Chiar există Illuminati?”. Centrul pentru studierea noilor religii (CESNUR). Accesat în 30 decembrie 2015.

6. ^ „O istorie a Ordinului Noii Lumi — Prima parte”. Michael Journal. Accesat în 21 noiembrie 2017.

7. ^ „Îngeri și demoni provoacă controverse reale - 5/17/09 - Fresno News — abc 30.com”. Abclocal.go.com. 17 mai 2009. Accesat în 8 iulie 2009.

8. ^ Porter, Lindsay. Cine sunt Iluminati?, RAO (trad. Alexandru Radu). 2009

9. ^ Barkun, Michael. Cultura conspirației: viziuni apocaliptice din America contemporană, Studii comparative în religie și societate, University of California Press, 2003,

10. ^ Știri Illuminati website: Ordinul secret Illuminati (o scurtă istorie a guvernului din umbră)

11. ^ Taguieff, Pierre-Andre. Iluminații. Ezoterism - Teoria complotului - Extremism, RAO (trad. Bogdan Nicolae Marchidanu). 2008

12. ^ Familia Bush și ritualurile lor Illuminati

13. ^ Legătura dintre Barack Obama și Illuminati

14. ^ Makow, Henry, Ph.D.: Illuminati: cultul care a confiscat lumea, BookSurge Publishing, 2008, ISBN 1-4392-1148-5

15. ^ „Illuminati. Ordinul înțelepților iluminați”. bibiliotecapleyades.net. Accesat în 21 noiembrei 2017. Verificați datele pentru: |access-date= (ajutor)

16. ^ Springmeier, F: Sangvinitatea Illuminati, Ambassador House, 1998, ISBN 0-9663533-2-3

17. ^ Un sit oficial al Illuminati

18. ^ Pagina Ordinului Illuminati

19. ^ Istoria Ordinului Illuminati în America

20. ^ *Orden Illuminati Consejo Central México

21. ^ De exemplu, ei sunt tema centrală în filmul Lara Croft: Tomb Raider

22. ^ Spre exemplu în producțiile de televiziune Disney, precum Gargoyles

23. ^ precum Deus Ex

24. ^ CGD – Noii răzbunători: Illuminati

 

External links

Illuminatiofficial.org

Nicu Pârlog, Illuminati, 14 aprilie 2009, Descoperă.ro

 

https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illumi